It can tell nothing of origins, nothing of the great First Cause, from which the orderly universe has proceeded. The process by which he arrived naturally at a theistic interpretation of the world seems to have been a simple, spontaneous application of the principle of causality. We shall briefly review the more common ones. In the first place, there is no existing form of religion known in which Fetishism is the sole constituent element. The thunder suggests the thunderer. Genesis 4:3-5; Matthew 5:23). It is not a bribe, as some have objected, though it may degenerate into such. Being generally given to incontinence, polygamy, deeds of violence, and even to cannibalism, they have naturally attributed the same sentiments and practices to their gods. Such, it would seem, was the simple philosophy forming the natural basis of religion in primitive times. In the last analysis it is an act of the will. A fetish is an object (generally small enough to be easily carried) in which a spirit is thought to reside, acting as a protective genius for the owner who wears it, and who venerates it because of its indwelling spirit. The absence of hope paralyzes the virtue of religion. The giving over of the object to the Deity implied that it no longer belonged to the worshipper, but was made the sacred property of the Deity (sacrificium). The term is also used in the Martyrdom of Polycarp (155) and in the Muratorian fragment (about 177). Aiken, C.F. The testimony of reliable witnesses and the numerous ex-votos that have come down to us from antiquity leave no doubt as to the reality of many of these cures. A deity without personality is no more capable of awakening the sense of religion in the heart of man than is the all-pervading ether or the universal force of gravitation. Some Protestant churches avoid using the term completely, to the extent among many Lutherans of reciting the Creed with the word "Christian" in place of "catholic". Their use degenerated into idolatry where Polytheism prevailed. Thirdly, the love of God for His own sake is a concomitant of the virtue of religion, being needed for its perfection. For this reason the damned are no longer capable of religion. Max Muller favoured this view. Such affection seems to be implied in generous offerings and in expressions of thankfulness so common in religious rites. The emotional element in external worship is a feature that cannot be overlooked. But even in primitive Buddhism communion with the gods of India was retained as an element of lay belief and aspiration, and it was only by substituting the ideal of Divine communion for that of Nirvana that Buddhism became a popular religion. Religion, broadly speaking, means the voluntary subjection of oneself to God. These definitions, in so far as they are true, are only partial characterizations of religion. Being thus removed from ordinary use, it was passed over to the Deity by a total or partial destruction. History of religion Most noteworthy has been the influence of Christianity in transforming and elevating society. “Roman Catholic” From what has been said it is plain that the concept of deity required for religion is that of a free personality. The emotions, elicited by the recognition of dependence on God and by the deeply felt need of Divine help, give greater efficacy to the deliberate exercise of the virtue of religion. (1) The acts of homage may be distinguished into three classes: (a) the direct acts of worship; (b) the regulation of conduct outside the sphere of moral obligation; (c) the regulation of conduct within the recognized sphere of moral obligation. There is thus no good ground for asserting ancestor-worship to have been the earliest form of religion, nor do we need it to account for religion, strictly speaking, in any of its forms. This was even true of circumcision, which, while being a mutilation of a minor sort (the only form of mutilation tolerated in the Old Law), was given a highly moral signification, and made to serve as the token of God's covenant with Abraham and his descendants. In the Eastern churches, Catholic and Orthodox, this is known as the Divine Liturgy; in the West, it is known as the Mass, an English word derived from the Latin text of the priest's dismissal of the congregation at the end of the liturgy ("Ite, missa est. The Christian philosopher arrives at this by a process of discursive reasoning, making use of arguments drawn from external nature and from his inner consciousness (see article GOD). It is not a bribe, as some have objected, though it may degenerate into such. [47] It simply means that body of Christian believers over the world who agree in their religious views, and accept the same ecclesiastical forms.[47]. In this way was symbolized the friendly union of the Deity and the worshippers. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. In spite of various and quite frequent theological and ecclesiastical disagreements between major Christian sees, common Catholicity was preserved until the great disputes that arose between 9th and 11th century. Such is the so-called mind-cure, or cure by suggestion. The office of prophet, the recognized spokesman of the Deity, is generally but not always distinct from that of priest. This video is a part of The Religion Teacher’s Catholic Social Teaching Activity Pack.To get the graphic organizer to accompany this video as well as more than a dozen other worksheets, login to The Religion Teacher, buy the activity pack, or become a premium member. Again, while men of lower grades of culture have a crude notion of souls, they do not need that concept to arrive at the idea of personal agency in nature. This discipline studies the different psychical states implied in, and associated with, the religious consciousness. This was an anticipation and a perfection of the notion of religion, which man from the beginning was naturally capable of acquiring. To the Theist this offers a strong presumptive argument in favour of Divine revelation, for God would hardly leave this legitimate craving of the human heart unsatisfied. How man arrives at the notion of such personality, this theory does not explain. universal or of general interest; - 1867 J. They are however, by definition, not recognised by the Catholic Church. Such is the so-called mind-cure, or cure by suggestion. Hence the widespread observance of religious festivals, when public sacrifices are offered with elaborate ritual and are accompanied with feasting and rest from ordinary business. Cicero, in his "De natura deorum", II, xxviii, derives religion from relegere (to treat carefully): "Those who carefully took in hand all things pertaining to the gods were called religiosi, from relegere." Mistakes like these might be made by some stupid individual of the tribe, but not by all the members of the tribe, still less by tribes over all the earth. In acquiring notions of invisible, intangible beings, man has generally made large use of the imagination, which, while it often misrepresents, serves to concretize and make real the things he recognizes but only vaguely grasps. It also admits a more extensive comparison of religion with religion in order to estimate their relative value. Again, departed heroes named Sun, Thunder, Rain-Cloud, came after a lapse of time to be confounded with the real sun and other natural phenomena, thus giving rise to the conception of nature-deities and to nature-worship. Catholicism shares some beliefs with other Christian practices, but essential Catholic beliefs include the following: The Bible is the inspired, error-free, and revealed word of God. “We believe in the holy Church, that is, the Catholic Church; for heretics and schismatics call their own congregations churches. Familiarity with lifeless objects, as stocks and stones, weapons and utensils, shows that even these things exhibit only such movement and force as he and his fellows choose to impart to them. Religion in its highest forms has exercised a profound influence on the development of human culture. Again, as a result of such intuition, man should be found everywhere with a monotheistic religion. Primitive Buddhism, with its aim to secure unconscious repose (Nirvana) through personal effort independently of Divine aid, seems to be an exception. Religion on its subjective side is essentially, but not exclusively, an affair of the will, the will to acknowledge by acts of homage man's dependence on God. This explains how, for example, among peoples so highly civilized as the Babylonians, Greeks, and Romans, certain lascivious rites could hold their own in the sacred liturgy, and also how, in the worship of the Aztec god of war, human sacrifices with cannibal feasts could prevail to so shocking a degree. This element is common to all religions. 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